LEAP 4: Create to Learn


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Infographic Link: https://create.piktochart.com/output/30185322-leap-4-infographic

Meme slideshow:  LEAP 4 Meme Slide Show_Brittany Wetherbee

*note: please activate audio after opening meme slideshow 

Black and Blue or Gold and White?

Leap 2

In this screen cast, I critically analyze an advertisement created by the Salvation Army in order to create awareness for Domestic Violence against women.

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Photo: (http://propaganda.mediaeducationlab.com/rate/1671)

Screencast link: https://screencast-o-matic.com/watch/cFeQb1Dbiu


Is That Dress White and Gold or Blue and Black? (2015, February 27). Retrieved March 09, 2018, from https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/02/28/science/white-or-blue-dress.html

Slusser, C. (2015, March 06). ‘The Dress’ Featured In Brilliant Domestic Violence Ad. Retrieved March 09, 2018, from https://www.newsy.com/stories/famous-dress-featured-in-brilliant-domestic-violence-ad/



LEAP 1: Propaganda In My Life

What comes to mind when you hear the word Propaganda?

Personally, I think of information that has a particular motive; whether it is good or bad. Two of my favorite definitions of propaganda include:

Propaganda is a form of communication aimed towards influencing the attitude of a population toward some cause or position. -Wikipedia

Another definition of propaganda that I find accurate is:

Propaganda is the deliberate, systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions, and direct behavior to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist. -Garth Jowett and Victoria O’Donnell

 Any way you interpret the word propaganda, it is everywhere in the world, and has been for a long time. Propaganda is in our news, information, advertising, and entertainment. As social media has risen over the past recent years, propaganda has become inevitable.  This blog post will take you through 5 examples of propaganda in my life though different channels. These channels include: Advertising, Entertainment, Education, Government, and Activism. Starting with Advertising…



“Truth is a national campaign aimed at eliminating teen smoking in the United States. “truth” produces television and digital content to encourage teens to reject tobacco and to unite against the tobacco industry.”

In 2018, TRUTH has incorporated many celebrities into their campaigns to make them more effective and appealing. For example, recently, they partnered with LOGIC (pictured below), a Hip Hop Artist, to expose the truth on smoking. images-1.jpeg

On Truth’s website you can join the action by hash tagging “#WorthMore” to “tell Big Tobacco why you are worth more.” They offer many free statistics and quizzes to test your knowledge about smoking and tobacco. You can also get involved by sending a message to someone from the military who is trying to stay strong while quitting smoking. Truth is a very interactive company that seeks to change the behavior of its audience. They seek to:





The Truth Campaign fits the guidelines of advertising propaganda because as described, “Advertisers want to generate increased consumption of their commercial products and services by using a variety of forms of mass media and digital media to persuade readers, viewers, users or listeners.” Truth seeks to promote their services and ideals through their campaign. They are successfully doing this with their advertisements.





In modern day we are surrounded by what the media calls, “Fake news.” Many people think President Trump is responsible for the term “fake news,” however, as I learned by completing a COM416 Media Lab activity, fake news has been around us since the beginning of media. Fake News is defined as, “a type of yellow journalism or propaganda that consists of deliberate misinformation spread via traditional print and broadcast news media or online social media. Fake news is written and published with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain

fake news

 financially or politically.” Fake news makes it hard for journalists to cover real stories because their material is overwhelmed by fake news. “An analysis by Buzzfeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U.S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 news stories on the election from 19 major media outlets.” With fake news being so common, it is very hard to find a reliable source and a solid news story that is trustworthy.






Directors: Seth Rogan and Evan Goldberg

The movie, The Interview raised a lot of eyebrows when it was released in 2014. This movie is about Dave Skylark and his producer, Aaron Rapoport – the two main characters – who run the tabloid show “Skylark Tonight.” For their show, they land an interesting interview with a (unexpected) fan, Kim Jung-Un. When the CIA catches wind of this interview, Skylark and Rapoport are recruited by the CIA to turn their trip to Pyongyang, for the interview, into an assassination mission. With a clear political aim, this movie was clearly set to expose North Korea as well as get a rise out of the country and their Dictator, Kim Jung-un. Doing its job, the movie created an uproar in North Korea.  When the trailer was officially released, a spokesman for North Korea’s foreign ministry claimed the movie was “a most wanton act of terrorism and war.” Furthermore, this source said that the “gangster filmmaker” has incited “a gust of hatred and rage among the North Korean people and if the US Government allows the film to proceed, merciless countermeasures will be taken.” Soon after, movie theaters pulled the movie. maxresdefault.jpgWhen officially released, audiences were only able to view The Interview by streaming it online or buying it on demand. Director, Evan Goldberg’s statement on Korea’s reaction to the film: “Our stuff is in the news sometimes,” he continues, “But this is different – this is realnews.” In a Rolling Stone interview with Seth Rogan about the movie, he states: “It’s funny, because we’ve been in the world of North Korea for so long that when we heard it, we were like, ‘Yeah, OK,’ ” Rogen, 32, says. “They say crazy shit about America all the time. Literally, the opening scene of our movie is a little girl singing pretty much the exact thing they said about us.” He ties up his statement by saying, “At best, it will cause a country to be free, and at worst, it will cause a nuclear war. Big margin with this movie.” It is clear that these directors were trying to aim some political attention to what is going on in the world.

This propaganda works because as stated on the Where to Find Propaganda Worksheet, “Stories offer ideas and information about good and evil, right and wrong, thus embedding values and ideology into narrative form.” This movie uses comedy to reflect each director’s values on the current event in the world regarding North Korea and Kim Jung Un.







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The high school I went to, Cranston High School West (CHSW), located in Cranston, Rhode Island, was appointed a new Principal, Mr. Barberi, in 2012, the year before I graduated. When Mr. Barberi took over as principal, he changed the school’s motto to: “Give. Get. RESPECT!” With that, came a new school vision and mission. Our new vision stated: “Our vision is to be a top-ranked learning community that graduates productive, respectful citizens who are prepared to succeed in a global society.” The new mission stated, “At Cranston High School West, it is our belief that: We do not all arrive in the same manner, but we do all arrive at the someplace, Cranston High School West. Here, we all learn that there is no limit to our success; with hard word, dedication and respect, we can turn the impossible into the possible. Our school community is a family that helps us to develop our confidence and identities. Together and through our actions, we are prepared for our future. We are Forever Falcons.”

Screen Shot 2018-02-14 at 12.35.08 AM.pngI graduated in 2013, however, as technology has increased, CHSW has advanced their propaganda with technology. For example, they have a twitter for the school as well as an account for the principal. 

See below: Principal, Mr. Barberi’s Twitter, displaying school’s motto, “Give. Get. Respect!” in bio. 

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The description of Educational propaganda states: “From kindergarten to college, some forms of education are explicitly designed to lead people to accept a particular world view. Education can be a form of indoctrination when certain doctrines, ideas,

information, values and beliefs are not permitted to be questioned. Propaganda enters the classroom in many ways.” (Where to Find Propaganda Worksheet) As you can interpret from both the vision and mission, Mr. Barberi intended that the school embrace the ideals of respect and community. Without question, as students, we were to follow the new vision, mission, and live by the school’s new motto.







In 2014, AT&T started the “IT CAN WAIT” texting and driving campaign. They focused on educating the public on the dangers of texting and driving in order to put an end to texting and driving. One of their slogans was, “No text is worth a life…It Can Wait.”


AT&T took charge with their campaign by implementing a “No Texting and Driving Pledge.” This encouraged drivers to commit to never test and drive again by holding themselves accountable to a loved one. Drivers were urged to take the pledge at ItCanWait.com and then proceed to share their pledge on social media channels in order to get other people to take the pledge. This went along with the hashtag that promoted the campaign, #ItCanWait. Next, AT&T implemented a “driving behavior change,” which encouraged individuals to create a routine while driving to decrease temptation to text and drive. This was implemented to remind the driver of their pledge and signaled friends on social and on text that they are unavailable while driving. With that, they offered a free mobile app, called AT&T DriveMode offered for smart phones in which provided a customizable auto-reply message that would be received by anyone texting the driver. This notified the party that the phone user is driving and will respond when done. For the campaign, AT&T worked with filmmaker Werner Herzog to develop a documentary which included real stories of lives that were severely damaged due to texting and driving. The documentary was provided to every high school in the country and asked teens to spread the word by using the hashtag #ItCanWait. To deepen and further the campaign, AT&T implemented online simulators. An online simulator was available at itcanwaitsimulator.org to show viewers the dangers of texting and driving. The company showed dedication to their own campaign by having their employees take the pledge and advertise it. “More than 1,500 organizations, including USAA, Goodyear, the FCC, National Organizations for Youth Safety (NOYS), National Safety Council and the U.S. Department of Transportation” were involved in this campaign.  



This campaign falls under Government because according to the Where to Find Propaganda Worksheet, Government propaganda, “Often this involves the construction of messages that are oversimplified and that appeal to people’s existing beliefs and attitudes, sometimes exploiting their fears and prejudices.” Texting and driving campaigns often aim to install fear into people in order to change their behavior: not to text and drive. This campaign does this by saying, “it can wait” which is trying to make people fear sending a stupid text, as it is not worth their or anyone else life. 






After Donald Trump was elected President of the United States in 2017, people began forming protests. In February 2017, a series of protests were held by people against Donald Trump. Cities across the country participated in “Not My Present’s Day” rallies 123.jpgpreachinga strong anti-Trump agenda. Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York City were few of the major cities that held these demonstrations. CNN reports “The rallies on Monday came amid what has been a fierce backlash from liberal grassroots groups to the Trump administration. That opposition has been voiced on a broad range of issues, including women’s reproductive rights, immigration, and climate change.” While reporting on this rally, CNN was able to interview one of the event organizers, Olga Lexell, who claimed that the events were intended to “show Trump there was widespread opposition to his policies and ridiculous executive orders.” While being interviewed, Lexell continued, “A lot of people are angry because he lost the popular vote and is ruling like somebody who won by a landslide.” 


This protest is an example of propaganda because as the Where to Find Propaganda Worksheet states, “People who are trying to improve society or create social change use propaganda to influence public opinion. Activists try to promote social, political, economic or environmental change through using communication activities and public events that attract attention and influence people’s knowledge, attitudes and opinions.” This “NOT MY PRESIDENT” protest has clear motive of trying to reach the masses to influence opinions about President Trump. Furthermore, these protests were aimed right at President Trump and his administration.




Works Cited:

Truth (anti-tobacco campaign). (2018, February 10). Retrieved February 13, 2018, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truth_(anti-tobacco_campaign)

Eells, J. (2014, December 17). How Seth Rogen Sparked an International Incident. Retrieved February 13, 2018, from https://www.rollingstone.com/culture/features/seth-rogen-interview-north-korea-controversy-cover-story-20141217

(n.d.). Retrieved February 13, 2018, from http://www.cpsed.net/chsw/

Texting and Driving…It Can Wait . (2014). It Can Wait . Retrieved February 13, 2018, from https://www.att.com/Common/about_us/txting_driving/att_twd_fact_sheet0512.pdf

Levenson, E. (2017, February 21). Not My Presidents Day protesters rally to oppose Trump. Retrieved February 13, 2018, from https://www.cnn.com/2017/02/20/us/not-my-presidents-day-protests/index.html

Fake news. (2018, February 10). Retrieved February 13, 2018, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fake_news




Bernays, E. (1928). Propaganda: Q&A

Assignment: In response to Edward Bernays’ classic book, Propaganda, select 5 questions and answer each one by composing a blog post. The goal is to demonstrate comprehension of the reading by offering a summary of key ideas with strategic use of paraphrase and direct quotation.  

Q: What is the origin of the term ‘propaganda’?

A: Bernays begins by explaining the origin of the term propaganda by saying: “In itself, the word ‘propaganda’ has certain technical meanings, which, like most things in this world, are ‘neither good nor bad but custom makes them so.'” Furthermore, he explains the word propaganda defined in Funk and Wagnalls’ Dictionary in four different ways…

  1. A Society of cardinals, the overseers of foreign missions; also the College of the Propaganda at Rome founded by Pope Urban VIII in 1627 for the education of missionary priests; Sacred College de Propaganda Fide. 

  2. Hence, any institution or scheme for propagating a doctrine or system.

  3. Effort directed systematically toward the gaining of public support for an opinion or a course of action. 

  4. The principles advanced by a propaganda.

After quoting these definitions, he further explains that the true meaning of propaganda was extremely distorted and not even in the Standard Dictionary. This was due to the term taking on a sinister meaning during the “late war,” Bernays says. (Bernays, 21) 

After all the change and misuse of the term propaganda, Bernays states: “Modern propaganda is a consistent, enduring effort to create or shape events to influence the relations of the public to an enterprise, idea or group.” (Bernays, 25) Furthermore, “This practice of creating circumstances and of creating pictures in the minds of millions of persons is very common. Virtually no important undertaking is now carried on without it, whether that enterprise be building a cathedral, endowing a university, marketing a moving pictures, floating a large bond issue, or electing a president.” (Bernays, 25) Giving the word more meaning, Bernays states: “Sometimes the effect on the public is created by a professional propagandist, sometimes by an amateur deputed for the job. the important thing is that it is universal and continuous; and in its sum total it is regimenting the public mind every bit as much as an army regiments the bodies of its soldiers.” (Bernays, 25) 

Edward Bernays brings the term propaganda back to life and gives it new meaning. He gives the word a more neutral meaning versus the old fashion meaning, which had a negative connotation. 

Q: Why does Bernays believe people rely on “invisible rulers” and “invisible government”?

A: People rely on the “invisible rulers” and “invisible government” because many times we are not even aware we are relying on them. Bernays states, “Our invisible governors are in many cases, unaware of the identity of their fellow members in the inner cabinet.” (Bernays, 9) We are so heavily influences by people whom we don’t even know the true identity of many times. These same people are behind the propaganda in which we allow to influence our lives. He further explains that “they govern us by their qualities of natural leadership, their ability to supply needed ideas and by their key position in the social structure.” Therefore, these “invisible rulers” and “invisible government” are those of stature and importance in our social society. We rely heavily on their power and source of information to function in our society. Perhaps, this is is where the power of propaganda stems from. All together, according to Bernays, we need these invisible rulers in order to function; “It is not usually realized how necessary these invisible governors are to the overly functioning of our group life.” (Bernays, 10)

Q: “Men do not need to be gathered in a public meeting to be subject to the influences of mass psychology,” notes Bernays. How do propagandists influence people? 

A: Propagandas is meant to resonate with people. Therefore, even when someone is alone, he/she is thinking about propaganda and the action to be taken. Bernays claims, “Because man is by nature gregarious he feels himself to be a member of a herd, even when he is alone in his room with the curtains drawn.” I interpret this as Bernays saying that propaganda has the power to effect a mass of people, even if that mass of people aren’t together, because everyone feels like they are part of something even if they are alone. He further explains, “His mind retains the patterns which have been stamped on it by the group influences.” To me, this goes back to how propaganda resonates with its audience. Whether it is in a positive or negative light, propaganda leaves a mark on whoever it is visible to. If I see propaganda I am somehow going to react to it, whether is with positivity or negativity – that means the propaganda did its job. Either way, the propaganda is getting promoted and reactions out of both its intended and unintended audiences. Propagandists influence people because they have the ability to get into people’s minds and resonate their message(s) with them. Propaganda and Propagandists are extremely powerful and influential. 

Q: How have your attitudes about propaganda changed after reading this book? 

A: Before reading this book, my thoughts on propaganda surprisingly, somewhat aligned with Bernays thoughts on propaganda. I have always believed that there is a good and a bad side to propaganda. I also believe that how people see propaganda depends on their interpretation of the media being put forth; either way we feed into propaganda. Bernays states: “Whatever attitude one chooses to take toward this condition, it remains a fact that in almost every act of our daily lives, whether in the sphere of politics, or business, in our social conduct or our ethical thinking, we are dominated by the relativity small number of persons — a trifling fraction of our hundred and twenty million — who understand the mental processes and social patterns of the masses.” (Bernays, 9-10) For example, if I find an ad or a campaign to be deceiving and manipulative, I am most likely to have a negative opinion of propaganda. On the other end, if I find an ad or campaign to be inspirational and empowering I may see the positive side of propaganda and find it to be helpful in spreading messages. Either way, I am being influence because of the power of propaganda. While reading Bernay’s book, it seemed that our ideals aligned. I also believe that propaganda will never disinigrate and it will only decrease, especially as social media and digital marketing grow. Bernays says exactly what I believe to end the book by stating, “Propaganda will never die out.” (Bernays, 159) As the general public, I do believe we must be aware of propaganda and caution how we act upon it, as our reactions can effect the world. 

Q: Some ideas from Bernays are outdated because the book was written 90 years ago. Give a couple of examples of this and explain what’s different now. 

A: Bernays states: “The radio is at present one of the most important tools of the propagandist. Currently, I do not believe the radio stands as one of the most important tools of propaganda. I would say that social media is one of the most important tools of the propagandist. With social media such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc, it is very easy to spread campaigns, ads, and even fake news. Furthermore, we have many broadcasting stations promoting campaigns, ads and spreading fake news as well. Social media has the ability to reach billions of people and I firmly believe social media platforms are reaching a much larger audience than the radio is reaching in 2018.

Bernays also claims, “It [the radio] may compete with the newspaper as an advertising medium. Its ability to reach millions of persons simultaneously naturally appears to the advertiser.” I disagree with this statement. In 2018, I believe that the newspaper is dying out, especially with the rise of digital platforms. Many people use the web as a source of news and do not even get a newspaper. Speaking from experience, I am one of those people. According to Pew Research Center, only 23% of Americans currently read a print newspaper. Furthermore, they explain, “Currently, 55% of regular New York Times readers say they read the paper mostly on a computer or mobile device, as do 48% of regular USA Today and 44% of Wall Street Journal readers.” This tells me that Bernays’ thought about the radio and newspaper in competition to reach the masses is incorrect. I believe the only thing the newspaper is competing for is to stay alive.



Bernays, E. (1928). Propaganda

Heimlich, Russell. “Number of Americans Who Read Print Newspapers Continues Decline.” Pew Research Center, 10 Oct. 2012, http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2012/10/11/number-of-americans-who-read-print-newspapers-continues-decline/.